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蒙曼:我心目中的教育家(转载)  

2016-03-15 21:06:15|  分类: 教育论坛 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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    蒙曼:我心目中的教育家(转载) - sdbzyiyishenghui - sdbzyiyishenghui的博客




            在我心目中,教育家要能够区分三个问题。第一,要区分教育内容的轻重缓急。第二,要区分教育对象的资质特性。第三,要区分人生的阶段,并据此区分教育的阶段。

    先说教育内容的轻重缓急。大家都知道《论语·子路》里樊迟学稼的故事。很多人由此认为,孔子鄙视体力劳动,或者鄙视技术。其实,这个故事的重点在于孔子办的教育是君子之学。孔子认为,教育的核心问题在于培养君子,再由君子引导社会,自然就会四民各安其业。人格教育重于技术教育,其实也重于知识教育,这是传统君子教育的特点。那么现代教育呢?有人说如今不是精英教育,而是大众教育。然而,大众教育的本质绝不是让教育的水准下降,而是通过教育,让大众也能成长为优秀的君子淑女。君子淑女不是单用知识就能衡量的,应是人格教育大于知识教育。那是不是说,在教育中,人格排第一位,知识排第二位?还不是。没有研究的兴趣与能力,就算有知识,也只是旧知识、死知识。当年蔡元培先生说得好:最重的是健全人格,其次是研究兴趣,最轻是知识。我们今天办教育,不能反其道而行之。

    再说教育对象的资质特性。这就涉及到因材施教的问题。《论语·先进》里,同样是“知道了之后要不要付诸行动”这个问题,孔子给了学生不同的答案。子路莽撞,孔子就让他多问几个人,多思考几次;冉有优柔,孔子激励他快快决断。很多人会觉得这是老生常谈,但其实,因材施教牵涉到真正的教育公平。学生不仅个性不同,兴趣点也不同,资质还不同。如果一味追求所有的学生学一样的内容,一样的进度,那才是最大的不公平。孔子讲仁,讲了109次,每次都不一样,这其实就是仁。如果学生能够从教育中体会到,在学校里,不仅仅知识的优势有人鼓励,其他的兴趣也有人点赞,他们的人生就会丰富很多。

    又说教育的阶段性。朱熹把教育分为小学和大学。小学是八到十五岁,教学内容是“学其事”,从洒扫、应对、进退开始,教孩子伦常礼教,再辅以礼乐射御书数,让孩子即读、即知、即行,最后达到“习与智长,化与心成”的目的,养成生活和学习的良好习惯,培养基本人格。大学是十五岁以上,教学内容是“明其理”,在小学的基础上格物穷理,修己安人。换句话说,从小学到大学,不仅仅是知识难度的增长,而是从学“见小∧锤大众教觭 诸 620.学得锤谋局蕇 蛛前说绞逅辏萄b3,的床愦胃杏胝荆没有其蠢而凶邢复Κ识礷ont face="楷体_gb2312" size="5" >
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